Linux For Window Users - Introduction
Linux [lin-uh ks, lin-iks, or, esp. British, lin-oo ks] is a
free and Open Source computer operating system first developed by
Linus Torvalds and friends, announced August 25, 1991. The Linux
kernel runs on numerous different platforms including the Intel,
PPC, AMD, and Alpha platform and is available under the GNU General
Public License. Recent addtions include the ARM platform with the
introduction of Raspian for the RaspberryPI.
Linux may be obtained in two different ways. You can (not
recommended) build up a system from scratch using components. All the
necessary components can be downloaded free of charge from the
Internet, which means an operating system can be assembled
for almost nothing. An alternative is to use a so-called OSP
(original software provider) distribution or distro, which is
a Linux package of programs and libraries offered by many companies.
They include a broad range of applications and full programs
in an installation package that significantly simplify the
installation of Linux. The installer application provides the user
with all the choices as the installation process progresses and
offers a preview of the various features of that distro.
There are hundreds of different distributions of Linux that have been
released. Below are just a few. A great site that lists almost every
distribution, as well as rankings is DistroWatch. It is a given that
this is a subjective look at Linux but one must start somewhere in
the evaluation process.
This is a partial listing of Linux Distributions in alphabetical order:
|A – D
||F – L
||M – R
||S – Z|
Damn Small Linux (DSL)
Fedora Linux (from Red Hat)
Kubuntu (Ubuntu variation)
Linux Mint (highly recommened)
Red Hat Linux
It seems like a daunting task to choose from all these
distributions...understood!. No worries, we are here to help.
Continue reading and all will be somewhat clearer.
The Linux system can be distributed, used, and expanded free of
charge (unlike Windows® in any version). In this way, developers
have access to all the source codes, thus being able to integrate new
functions or to find and eliminate programming bugs quickly. The
Linux user can choose to use the original text based interface, or a
Graphical User Interface (GUI), known as a Window environment (The
native environment for Microsoft Windows®). With the GUI,
there are multiple choices made to suit the needs of the user and
meet the needs of the many. You are not locked in to whatever the
vendor deems appropriate.
Installing Linux involves a procedure very similar to installing
Microsoft Windows® for the first time. Installation may be
performed from DVD or USB Thumb Drive media depending on which your
system can boot from, and how you created the install media. The DVD
is the obvious choice since it is easily created from the downloaded
.iso file online, or purchased outright from a distributor either
online or from your local software store (e.g. Best Buy or
OfficeMAX). USB bootable media is somewhat more complicated to
create but can be assumed to install in the same way as DVD media
with the added convenience of being slightly faster and more
The install process will guide you through a series of questions
about your hardware (disk partitions, etc.), time zone, prefered
language, and with at least one distro – all the
while providing entertainment from a preview slideshow. The slideshow
is not the actual system, just pictures of what is coming with a
brief review of each feature. Once the install process is done, the
DVD is ejected and you are asked to reboot your system.
If there is one thing other than reliability that Linux is known
for…it is versatility. That extends all the way down to the
boot–up process. You may want to dedicate an entire machine to
Linux, or you may wish to have Linux exist along side your current
system in what is known as a dual–boot configuration. Either
way you have numerous choices for everything from boot up to window
style and system sounds...even special effects.
Let’s look at some of the more obvious choices so you can see
what is meant. The illustration shown is from the Ubuntu distro of
The window shown is presented by a window manager is called GNOME. It
is simple, clean, stable, and very efficient. There are some obvious
points to note. GNOME does not look at all like Microsoft
Windows® as it comes with the distro.
However, that does not mean it is lacking in performance or
functionality. It is just different. Remember it was stated above
that Linux gives you choices. The following image illustrates just
how versatile Linux window managers are.
Without changing the window manager, this next illustration shows the
GNOME desktop with a Windows XP® style theme. The Linux operating
system and GNOME window manager are the same – only
the theme has changed. It has all the familiar icons as you have seen
for years on Windows XP®, but the underlying system is all Linux.
Looks just like Windows XP® doesn’t it? But it is not. Not
even close. This is Linux, full on and available in a familiar user
interface. The window environment can be given just about any look we
wish, even Vista®, Windows 7®, and yes...even OS X®.
Choices! If the Windows® look and feel is what you are
comfortable with, you can have that look and feel while using Linux
natively. This is a vital part of transitioning to an unfamiliar
environment. Start with what you know. Learn as you go, then
transition away from the old environment totally. The dramatic
changes you can make in the windowing environment on Linux allows
you to do this with minimal pain.
Farther down the page you will see two more themes that mimic Windows
versions. Once again, the operating system is the same, the window
manager is the same...all that changed was the theme displayed.
This is a testament to the true versatility of Linux and the GNOME
Window Manager. Additionally, there is nothing proprietary here.
Everything is Open Source and licensed under the GPL general
licence...FREE to use.
To be serious about moving to Linux or even using Linux beyond
surfing the Net or email, one must grasp a few basic terms that will
be encountered daily and will be used in our discussion. Some of the
terms may already be familiar if you are an experienced power user.
Regardless, the orientation is toward the use of Linux as a new
environment. The following is a list of common terms with a
definition or explanation as needed.
Linux – is a generic term
referring to the Unix roots of this computer operating system. The
core functions of this system are packaged into what is known as
the kernel. From this core, all other system functions
derive their basis. The kernel provides basic input and output
functions and interface with the hardware through small software
libraries known as hardware drivers. The kernel is a closed
software development project maintained by only a few people. This
development is one of the most prominent examples of free and open
source software collaboration. Typically all the underlying source
code outside the kernel can be used, freely modified, and
redistributed, both commercially and non–commercially, by
anyone under licenses such as the GNU GPL, or Creative Commons
The name “Linux” comes from the Linux kernel or core,
originally written in 1991 by Linus Torvalds. It is a conflation of
his name Linus and Unix…Lin–ux. Further, Linux is not
susceptible to viruses and trojans to the degree Windows® is.
A properly installed Linux system does not have total system
crashes in the way Windows® does with the notorious “blue
screen of death” or “system lockup’s”. If
an application crashes, Linux will just close that program and all
associated programs usually in an orderly fashion then continue
with other operations as if it had not happened.
Richard Stallman, left, founder of the GNU project, and
Linus Torvalds, right, author of the Linux kernel.
photos courtesy Wikipedia.org
X-Windows – is a generic term
referring generally to the User Interface (UI) as a software layer,
also known as a Graphic User Interface (GUI). The “X”
is a legacy moniker left over from Unix where it began. Microsoft
Windows® also has a GUI layer, and is built on top of the
Microsoft Disk Operating System® (DOS / NTFS). Both Linux and
Windows® contain GUI elements that are nearly the same, and the
user could have a hard time telling the differences with some
X–windows, Windows®–like themes. Linux was designed
for high–speed networking and Internet applications from very
strong Unix roots. X–windows is the
user–to–system hardware layer in Linux. The
X–windows GUI environment is now the defacto standard for
Linux GUI applications.
Window Manager – refers to the
X–windows application that makes the desktop, menus, windows,
etc. within the X–Windows system. It is responsible for
responding to user input and providing user output in the form of a
graphical windows design. Common window managers for Linux include
Gnome, LTM, the KDE project, Motif, and many others much less well
known. Each window manager has it’s own set of capabilities
Window Theme – refers to the
ability to script the “look and feel” of the window
manager as it handles the desktop adornments like menus,
task bar, window title bar, window borders, window buttons, and
icons used for applications and system functions. Common themes
are “Motif”, “Human”, “Modern”,
“Mint–X”, “Cinnamon” and others that
may come with your distro of Linux or can be downloaded from the
Net. As demonstrated earlier, there are many third–party
themes that may appeal to your sense of style and functionality.
Certainly, Windows® users will find the “XPGnome”
theme highly useful in moving from Windows® to Linux.
Internet Browser – refers to an
application on X–Windows that allows the graphical browsing
of the Internet. Microsoft Windows® users will be familiar with
Internet Explorer® (Edge® on Windows 10®), FireFox,
Safari®, Chrome, or Opra as browsers. Internet Explorer®
and Safari® are not available on Linux to run natively, but the
rest mentioned are available in a comparable Linux version (some
are included in various distros). By far the most versatile of the
Internet browsers is FireFox. There are literally thousands of
add–ons, themes and tools for use with FireFox that
accomplish amazing transformations of the look and feel or
usefulness of an otherwise common browser tool. Browsers only
available on Linux may include applications like Flock, and
Konquerer. While different, these are fully capable browsers
offered for use by Linux window managing themes. Konquerer is
offered by default on the KDE window manager.
Distro – is a shorthand
designation for software distribution of Linux software packages.
The underlying operating system kernel is the same for each
(perhaps in different versions) but each vendor has a particular
group and configuration unique to itself. For instance, Red Hat
Linux is no different at its’ core (the Linux kernel) than
Mandrake or Ubuntu. The differences lie in the installer programs
used to probe the hardware for configuration and installation,
as well as the included set of applications as part of the
distribution and perhaps the look and feel of the default desktop
window manager. All distros may include Mozilla FireFox Internet
Browser. However, you may have to download Chromium (the
Google Open Source version of Chrome), OpenOffice.org or
LibreOffice if you do not install Ubuntu or Linux Mint (LibreOffice
is included in the standard office modules and applications
with the Ubuntu workstation distro and Linux Mint - an extremely
stable version of Ubuntu distro. Be sure to read carefully the
feature list included software of each distro before installing.
GNU – a complete free software
system. GNU stands for “GNU’s Not Unix”. Richard
Stallman made the Initial Announcement of the GNU Project in
September 1983 (see his picture above). A longer version called
the GNU Manifesto was published in March 1985. It has been
translated into several other languages. The name “GNU”
was chosen because it met a few requirements; first, it was a
recursive acronym for “GNU’s Not Unix”, second,
because it was a real word, and third, it was fun to say (or Sing).
GNU is synonymous with Open Software. The GNU project has been
instrumental in establishing accepted standards in the Open
Software arena and has published several license versions for
software creators and publishers that express the scope of use of
free software considered as Open Software, especially if the
source code is also freely and openly distributed.
Open Source – refers to the
release of documents, source code, graphics, libraries, or
executable code for use in the public domain, distribution, and
modification, by a person or persons not originally responsible
for the generation of the product. For instance, LibreOffice is a
suite of office products written in Java. The source code for
LibreOffice may be available once you join the development team of
LibreOffice. Some terms and conditions exist. Other Open Source
products by example are Linux, OpenOffice.org, Chromium, and many
others. Being an Open Source product implies that others may have
access to the source code and documents that created the product
and that it may be altered in such a way as to benefit all who use
it. Open Source products are never sold. They are always offered
free and unencumbered. They also are supported by the community
that developed the individual product.
Email Client – refers to a
program that runs on your desktop to access email on a server such
as an a Microsoft Exchange® Mail Server. Often mail servers are
referred to as POP mail servers or SMTP mail servers. These are
just different ways of saying the same thing (just offering
different details). The email client connects to the server to view
and/or download mail to the local machine. This is the essential
functionality of Microsoft Outlook® as it connects to Microsoft
Exchange® mail servers (or others on the Windows platform).
Outlook® is a Microsoft® only product and is not offered in
a Linux version. The functional equivalent is available as a native
Linux application in several software packages. Among the most
notable are Mozilla Thunderbird, Sun Microsystems Open Office
Evolution Mail, and several others. Use of mail clients has
declined in recent history due to the high incidence of mail worms
and other mail propagated malware invasions. The alternative has
been Web–based mail offered by the email service provider.
For instance, Google, Yahoo, major ISP’s like AT&T and
Comcast offer Web–based mail access that eliminate the need
to have a local email client. This is much safer in terms of
malware vulnerability in that, all the malware protection and
storage of mail is on the server and not the local client (your
hardware) machine. By the way…not all anti–virus
software can detect or prevent mail–based malware. Some of
the best known names do a very poor job of detecting and
elmiminating mail worms and other mail–propagated malware.
FTP Client – (File Transfer
Protocol) refers to a program that runs on your desktop to access,
directly download, and/or manipulate files located on a distant FTP
server. Although there has been a dramatic decline in the use of
ftp client applications, some sites today require the use of an ftp
client to maintain files (like web site hosts and file archive
hosts). To facilitate the Windows® to Linux transition, it is
recommended that the user begin the use of a ftp client that is
available on both platforms such as FileZilla. This application
looks and works the same on either platform and flattens the
learning curve for platform support tools.
Mount – refers to the process of
logically granting access to a physical device or partition on a
physical device and assigning a volume name. For instance, if you
configure your machine to dual–boot Windows and Linux,
you may want the Windows® partition mounted as
“drive_c” or “windows” so that files in the
Windows® NTFS® partition are accessible while running
Note: Linux is case sensitive to all names and system
commands, unlike Windows® that will accept upper and lower case
to mean the same thing. On Linux, “Windows” is not the
same as “windows” and “C:/” is not the same
as “c:/”. Memorizing this rule will save you a lot of
You may also decide which devices or partitions are mounted at
startup or shown on your desktop. These are choices not given to
Windows® users. All Windows® partitions (partitions or
devices formated with NTFS or FAT) are mounted upon startup if
The mounted volume name becomes part of the pathname (i.e.
Note: Linux (and all Unix based systems) use the
forward slash (“/”) as a pathname separator rather
than the backslash (“\”) as in Microsoft Windows®.
The backslash is reserved to denote an escape character sequence
follows. For instance, the Unix character backslash–n
backslash–r (“\n\r”) is an escape sequence for
“New Line” (CR–LF) to be inserted. Do not use the
backslash unless you actually mean to set up an escape sequence.
The backslash is not used in any filename or pathname on Linux and
Permissions – refers to access
granted a user allowed to logon the system. The permission may be
unlimited (as given to the administrator or “root”
user) or (optionally) limited to some degree. Permissions may also
be assigned according to a user group (every user is in a group of
users on the system). For instance, user “A” and user
“B” are users in the fictional PowerUser group. They
are granted update and delete access to many folders that user
“C” in our fictional NewUser group will not have. The
user groups, and the permissions of each user and group are assigned
by the system administrator with “root” access. A much
less effective method appeared in Windows XP Pro®. Little about
Windows® permissions has changed since.
Root – refers to the greatest
privaledge access of the system. The beginning folder of the volume
is also called root (/). Each mounted volume has a root folder
(also called a directory or pathname). There is also a
built–in user name called “root” that has all
access and permission on the system. You may or may not be able to
login using this user name. Some systems restrict the use of root
as a login to preserve system level security. The
“root” login may also be called
“superuser”. For instance a power user may be able to
issue a “sudo” command in a terminal window. The
command “sudo” is an abbreviation for “superuser
do”. It is the same as doing the command that follows sudo
just as if the user were logged in as root (i.e. with elevated
Package – refers to a file that
contains one or more archived files, (either executable or library)
distributed for use or installation. Differing distros, package
files differently. The Debian distribution (like Debian
Linux, Ubuntu, Linux Mint or any other Debian based file system)
will package files as .deb for installation or .tar.gz as an
archive. The Red Hat distribution will have package files as .rpm
for installation or .tar.gz as an archive. The point is that
“package” is a collection of files for installation or
archive. Most often, distribution and archive packages are
compressed with familiar compression methods (like zip or lz). The .tar.gz file extention indicates the archive has been compressed twice; once with the legacy program tar, and a second time with
the newer GZ compression algorithum. This archiving scheme squezes the contents into much smaller packages.
Bin – is an abbreviation for
binary, and refers to a file that is compiled for execution. The
Windows® equivalent could be a .exe file. Unlike Windows®,
Linux requires that the user have permission to execute it. Each
user is assigned to a user group as well. Execution of, and access
to, files is determined by the administrator–assigned user
permissions (you – if yours is a single user
system). The administrator of the system is allowed all access
and permission to any file or function on the system.
Script – refers to a file, that is
usually plain text, and contains commands for execution in batch
mode. For instance, a PHP script will perform a number of system
level commands using the PHP interpreter. PHP is most often
seen as action sequences initiated by web access from a browser and
performed on a server. It is a powerful server–side language
that can be used to create whole applications (if you have visited
some sites you have seen the power of PHP – some
back end functions are written in PHP for the web). Other script
types include cgi (also for the web), c–shell, and Python.
All are interpreted commands designed to be run from a plain text
file in batch mode.
Device Driver – refers to software
that runs on the Linux operating system, most often as part of the
Linux kernel, usually with very high priority and provides, as the
name implies, hardware capabilities available and accessible to the
rest of the system. A soundcard driver, for instance, makes audio
input and output data available to the rest of the system. The
basic driver is a system level program that can run at system
startup or on demand. Most hardware drivers contain a public
programmer interface (called an API) that allows more than one
application to use the hardware capabilities. For instance, a CD
player/ripper can use the soundcard at the same time the Internet
Browser FireFox streams audio from the Internet. The major
difference between Windows® and Linux hardware drivers is that
the hardware is described as a file on Linux and given a device
name something like /dev/tty0 (a common serial port device).
Windows® users typically know devices by a name and icon
representation in the Windows® device manager. There is no
direct correlation between the Windows® device manager and
Linux. Linux does offer small applications (known as applets) that
manage devices, but all refer to Linux devices the same way.
The driver module itself is not a .dll as in Windows®. This
designation is totally a Microsoft® extension for dynamically
loaded libraries (dll). Linux device drivers may have any name, but
typically start with “lib” plus a device name, and
“.a” or “.so” filename extension (e.g. libasound.a - could be a soundcard driver).
These are but a few of many terms you will encounter learning Linux.
Check this site often as we update it on a regular basis.
Rev. 1.10 2018-03-14 AD5XJ